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【生物學論壇】基因組時代的林木改良—機遇與挑戰
來源:    作者:    發表時間:2019-05-27     瀏覽次數:次

報告題目: 基因組時代的林木改良 – 機遇與挑戰

報 告 人: Yousry A. El-Kassaby

單    位: 加拿大 UBC 大學林學院

時    間: 20190527日,下午4:00-5:00

地    點: 生物學院313會議室

 

報告人簡介:

Yousry El-Kassaby 教授,UBC 大學森林資源管理系主任、聯合國糧農組織高級協調員、國際林業研究組織聯合會 (IUFRO) 森林遺傳資源委員會協調員,是當今最著名的森林遺傳學家之一。主要研究領域為森林遺傳學,涉及種子園基本理論、遺傳多樣性與基因篩選、基因組水平育種與實踐,提出的BWB林木育種策略受到全球同行的廣泛關注。他還是加拿大《森林研究》雜志副主編,《國際林業研究雜志》編委。2010年,榮獲國際林聯 (IUFRO) 科學成就獎,該獎項是國際林業研究領域最重要的獎項之一。目前,Yousry教授在國際期刊上已發表論文200篇以上。

 

摘 要

Traditional tree breeding programs have captured impressive gains for many species all over the world. These long-term endeavours are resource-dependent, require organizational commitment and cover vast geographic territories. Until now, the classic recurrent selection scheme, with its repetitive cycles of selection, breeding, and testing, has been the scheme of choice. Selection of parental candidates is often conducted in natural stands and/or plantations. Breeding involves the development of a structured pedigree produced from crosses among the selected parents following established mating designs. The breeding cycle is completed by testing and evaluation. This process identifies the elite individuals which are then introduced to seed orchards for mass production of genetically improved seed for reforestation. While successful, this current scheme is static and not responsive to market or climate changes. The availability of relatively affordable genomic information for “non-model” species such as trees, with their known large and complex genomes, allows the creation of innovative developments that eliminate most of the traditional recurrent selection steps, thus making breeding more responsive and nimble. Such novel developments include the use of genomic-based assembled pedigree evaluation, the blended single-step evaluation, and the development of revolutionary genomic selection methods that predict mature phenotypes performance at an early age through the use of their genotypes. This genomic revolution has significant ramification as the model unit of quantitative genetics has shifted from being the line of descent to the allele, thus creating a paradigm shift requiring drastic reevaluation of past and current practices. However, these exciting developments have their own pitfalls that require relentless evaluation.